# Basic Ciphers and Cryptographic Algorithms

September 6, 2018

## Caesar Cipher

• Named after Julius Caesar
• Used it for sending message in secret
• Offset each letter by a given number
• Symmetric:
• You can get the plaintext from the ciphertext just as easily as getting the ciphertext from the plaintext
• Fairly easy to decipher:
• Just go through all 26 different shifts, check if the output is readable

## Caesar Cipher Example

• Plaintext: SECRET

• Shift: +13

• Ciphertext: SECRET => FRPERG

## Modulus

• For a positive number, it is the remainder after you divide
• Can be represented as a clock
• Each time you go around, it starts over
• Commonly represented by % in various programming languages
• Examples:
• 5 mod 2 = 1
• 0 mod 3 = 0
• 10 % 4 = 2
• 25 % 10 = 5

## Caesar Function in Python

def caesar(plaintext, offset):
return "".join([chr((ord(i) - 65 + offset) % 26 + 65)
for i in plaintext.upper()
if ord(i) >= 65 and ord(i) <= 90])

print(caesar('ABCDEF',  0))  # ABCDEF
print(caesar('SECRET', 13))  # FRPERG
print(caesar('ABCDEF',  1))  # BCDEFG

## Vigenère Cipher

• Leon Battista Alberti in 1467 Italy
• Artist, Author, Architect, Poet, Cryptographer
• Using multiple Caesar Ciphers and a Key
• The key determines what shift to use for a certain character
• Use a Vigenère Square (tabula recta) to line up alphabets and encode just like a Caesar Cipher
• Use the same square to decode

## Vigenère Encoding Example

• Plaintext: SECRET

• Key: NICE => NICENI

• Shifts: NICENI => (13, 8, 2, 4, 13, 8)

• Ciphertext: SECRET => FMEVRB

## Frequency Analysis

• In any language, some letters are much more frequently used than others
• We can use this to are advantage and help decipher messages that were encrypted using a substitution method
• Different languages have different letter frequencies
• This is why scrabble letters have different points in other languages

## Applications:

• Most online services need to store passwords
• Storing them in plain-text would be a violation of security
• They use asymmetric encryption to hash the password and get a ciphertext that will be stored in their database
• A slight change in the input (password) will result in an entirely different hash
• When you sign into that service, it will hash the password you put it in and compare it with the store hash
• If they match you can sign in
• The S (Secure) in HTTPS://
• A website and your browser use various cryptographic methods to
• Verify that the website is who it says it is
• Make sure that only the website and you can decipher the data that is sent back and forth